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Software Testing Interview Questions and Answers 2021

Software Testing Interview questions and ansers

In today’s technology world, software testers should be tech-savvy and proficient to detect errors and bugs in the developed applications. Gaining such demanding software testing skills require Software testing training. Moreover, to build a career in software testing, you need to clear the 1st step of Software Testing Interview Questions and Answers.

In general, most of the candidates get confused about which type of interview questions they have to learn for a Software testing interview and get a job in-hand.

It is quite easy to discover various practice questions, but it is hard to choose the right ones amongst them. Knowing the right questions is imperative for everyone to crack the software testing job interview.

Whether you are a beginner or an experienced candidate, review our list of top Software Testing interview questions and answers. This article will help you to get inspired and prepared, so you will get succeed in your interview.

Start a Career in Software Testing
Start a Career in Software Testing

Software Testing Interview Questions and Answers

Let’s see what are the important Software Testing interview questions needs to prepare.

1.What are the technical and additional skills that are needed to be a software tester?

A good Software Tester needs to have a working knowledge about:

  • Database/ SQL
  • Test Management Tool
  •  Linux commands
  • Defect Tracking Tool
  • Automation tool

 Apart from the above mentioned technical skills, a Software tester should have the below mentioned “good-to-have” Non-technical skills.

  • Analytical skills
  • Communication skill
  • Great Attitude
  • Time Management & Organization Skills
  • Passion

| Related: Top 10 Software Testing skills in demand

2. What is Exploratory testing?

Exploratory testing is a hands-on approach in which the software testers are involved in minimum planning and maximum test execution. Therefore, it is a method of conducting a test design and execution against an application simultaneously. In this testing, the tester uses their domain knowledge and testing experience to determine where and under what conditions the system might behave unexpectedly.

3. What is “use case testing”?

Use case testing is the technique that is involved in finding and executing the functional requirement of an application from start to finish. Here the testers use the “use case”. 

4. What are the types of defects?

There are 3 types of defects: Wrong, missing, and extra.

Wrong: These defects are developed due to the requirements that have been implemented incorrectly.

Missing: This type of defect occurs to specify the missing things.

Extra: This is an extra facility added to the product which was not given by the end customer. It is always a variance from the specification but may be an attribute that was desired by the customer. However, it is considered as a defect because of the variance from the user requirements.

Software Testing Skills
Software Testing Skills

5. Explain the difference between the STLC (Software Testing Life Cycle) and SDLC (Software Development Life Cycle)?

SDLC (Software Development Life Cycle) refers to the development/coding of the software.

On the other hand, STLC (Software Testing Life Cycle) refers to validation and verification of the software

| Related: What Is Software Testing Life Cycle

6. What is the difference between the Test matrix and the Traceability matrix?

Test Matrix: Test matrix is used to capture actual quality, effort, the resources, plan and time required to capture all phases of software testing

Traceability Matrix: With the help of the document, mapping the relationship between test cases and customer requirements is known as Traceability Matrix

7. What is Software Testing?

According to ANSI/IEEE 1059 standard – Software testing is the process of analyzing a developed software item to detect the defects and errors and to evaluate the features of the software item. Click here to know more.

8. What are the different types of software testing?

There are different types of software testing. This include,

  • Unit Testing
  • Integration Testing
  • System Testing
  • Sanity Testing
  • Smoke Testing
  • Interface Testing
  • Regression Testing
  • Beta/ Acceptance Testing and for many more Click here to know

9. What is the difference between Quality Assurance and Quality Control?   

Quality Assurance: Quality Assurance is process-oriented activities. Here, it ensures the prevention of errors and bugs in the process of software development. Doing this, the defects don’t increase when the Software Application is being developed.

Quality Control: Quality Control is product-oriented activities. It executes the program or code to find the defects in the Software Application.

10. What is Static and dynamic testing?

Static Testing is reviewing the documents to identify the errors in the early stages of SDLC while Dynamic testing is the execution of code to determine the output with the expected outcome.

11. What is White Box Testing?

White Box Testing is also called Clear Box, Glass Box, and Structural Testing. This type of testing is based on the applications’ internal code structure. In white-box testing, to design test cases, the internal perspective of the system and programming skills are used. White box testing is usually done at the unit level. 

12. What is White box testing and list the types of white box testing?

White box testing technique involves the selection of test cases that are based on the determination of internal structure (Code coverage, paths coverage, branches coverage, condition coverage, etc.) of a system or component. It is also known as Structural Testing or Code-Based testing. Different types of white box testing are

  1. Statement Coverage
  2. Decision Coverage

| Also Read: How to learn Software Testing

13. In white-box testing, what do you verify?

Performing the white-box testing technique, the following steps are determined.

  1. Determine the security holes in the code
  2. Determine the incomplete or broken paths in the code
  3. Verify the flow of structure depending on the document specification
  4. Determine the expected outputs
  5. Verify all conditional loops in the code to evaluate the complete functionality of the application
  6. Verify the line by line coding in the application and cover 100% testing

14. What is Black Box Testing?

Black Box Testing is a software testing method in which testers validate the functionality of the software without looking at the internal code structure. This can be applied to every level of software testing such as Unit, System, Integration and Acceptance Testing. 

15. What is black box testing? What are the different black box testing techniques?

Black box testing is one of the software testing methods that is used to test the developed software without knowing the internal structure of code or program. This software testing is usually done to check the functionality of an application. The different black box testing techniques are

  1. Equivalence Partitioning
  2. Boundary value analysis
  3. Cause-effect graphing

16. What do you verify in Black-Box testing?

Performing the black box testing, it is used to verify and validate the correct and smooth functioning of the intended functionalities without looking at the internal structure of the system. Thus, with the help of black-box testing, you can identify any ambiguities, vagueness, and contradictions in functional specifications.

This type of testing can be easily performed by any non-technical testers, developers, as well as end-users.

Learn Software Testing course
Learn Software Testing course

17. What is Grey Box Testing?

The grey box is the combination of both White Box and Black Box Testing. The software tester who works on this type of testing needs to have access to design documents. This helps to build better test cases in this process.

18. What is Positive and Negative Testing?

Positive Testing: It is to estimate what system is supposed to do. It helps to analyze whether the application is justifying the requirements or not.

Negative Testing: It is to determine what system is not supposed to do. It helps to find the errors from the software.

| Also Read: Best Websites to Learn Software Testing Online

19. What are the different test levels?

There are four test levels

  1. Unit/component/program/module testing
  2. Integration testing
  3. System testing
  4. Acceptance testing

20. What is Test plan in software Testing?

A TEST PLAN is a type of document that describes software testing scope and activities. It is the basis for formally testing any type of software/product in a project.

21. What Test Plans consist of?

The Test plan document consists of various details of test design, scope, test strategies, approaches.

  1. Test case identifierScopeFeatures to be tested
  2. Features not to be tested
  3. Test strategy & Test approach
  4. Test deliverables
  5. Responsibilities
  6. Staffing and training
  7. Risk and Contingencies

22. What is the difference between UAT (User Acceptance Testing) and System testing?

System testing or end-to-end testing; this type of testing technique is used to find errors when the system undergoes testing as a whole. Thus, in this testing, the application suffers from beginning to the end.

User Acceptance Testing (UAT) is the technique used to run a product through a series of specific tests that validate whether the product will meet the needs of its end-users.

23. What is the difference between Data-Driven Testing and Retesting?

Retesting is the process of checking defects that are actioned by the development team to verify that they are fixed.

In the Data-Driven Testing (DDT) process, the application is tested with multiple test data. The application is tested with various sets of values.

24. What is the difference between test scenarios, test cases, and test script?

The Difference between test scenarios and test cases is that

Test Scenarios: It is a functionality that can be tested. It is also called Test Condition or Test Possibility.

Test Cases: Test case is a type of document that contains the steps that need to be executed to test the software; The test case is planned earlier.

Test Script: It is written in a programming language and it’s a type of short program that is used to test part of the functionality of the software system.

To put it in simple words, the Test script is a written set of steps that should perform testing manually.

Best websites to learn Software Testing Online
Best websites to learn Software Testing Online

25. What are the different types of Black-Box testing tools?

The black testing tools that are used by black box testers are

  1. Selenium
  2. Appium
  3. Applitools
  4. HP QTP
  5. Microsoft Coded UI

| Related: Best Automated Testing Tools for Web Applications

26. How to Write Test Cases for Software?

The best practice while writing test case is, consider these things:

  • Keep the title short.
  • Include a strong description.
  • Be clear and concise.
  • Include the expected result.

Usually, the test case contains,

  • Title
  • Description
  • Test steps
  • Expected result
  • Actual result (once tested)

27. What is Test Suite?

Test Suite is a group or sequence of test cases. The test cases are intended to test an application.

28. What is Test Strategy?

Test Strategy is a high-level document (static document) and it is usually created by the project manager. The document is actually the procedure to be carried out while testing the product to achieve the goals. It is generally prepared from the Business Requirement Specification (BRS). Documents like Test Plan are prepared by keeping this document as a prelude. 

29. What are the valuable steps to resolve issues while testing?

  • Record: Log and handle any problems which have happened
  • Report: Report the issues to a higher-level manager
  • Control: Define the issue management process

30. What is Latent defect?

A latent defect is an existing defect in the system which does not cause any failure as the exact set of conditions has never been met

31. What are the phases involved in Software Testing Life Cycle?

The different phases involved in the software testing life cycle are

  • Test planning
  • Test case development
  • Environment Setup
  • Test execution
  • Test Cycle Closure

| Related: What is Software Testing Life cycle?

32. What is Test Cycle Closure?

It involves calling out the testing team member meeting & validating cycle completion criteria based on test coverage, quality, cost, time, critical business objectives, and software.

33. What Test Deliverables are?

Test Deliverables are a set of documents, tools and other types of components that have to be developed and maintained in support of testing.

There are different test deliverables at every phase of the software development lifecycle (SDLC)

  • Before Testing
  • During Testing
  • After the Testing

34. What are the different methods of testing in Software testing?

There are 3 methods of testing in software testing. They are

  1. Black-Box Testing
  2. White-Box Testing
  3. Grey-Box Testing

35. What is the difference between defect, bug, error, and failure in software Testing?

Error: It is a mistake that occurs in coding is called Error,

Defect: The occurred error found by the tester is called Defect

Bug: When the founded defect is accepted by the development team then it is called Bug.

Failure: If the build does not meet the requirements then it Is Failure.

To put in simple words, the Defect is the difference between expected and actual results in the context of testing.

| Also Read: How To Choose The Best Software Testing Training Institute? (8+ Ultimate Tips that actually workout)

36. What is Verification in software testing?

Verification is the process in Software testing, where the tester ensures whether they are building the right product i.e., to verify the requirements which they have and to verify whether they are building the product accordingly or not. 

Activities involved in verification are Inspections, Reviews, Walk-throughs. 

37. What is Validation in software testing?

Validation is the process in software testing, here the testers validate whether the building product is right i.e., to validate the product which they have developed is right or not. 

Activities involved in validation are testing the software application.

38. What is Test Bed in Software testing?

An environment configured for testing. Test bed consists of hardware, software, configuration, network, an application under test, other related software.

39. What is Test Environment in Software testing?

Test Environment is the combination of software and hardware on which the Test Team performs testing.

40. What is Unit Testing in Software testing?

Unit Testing is a type of software testing where individual units/ components of the software are tested.

A unit/single is the smallest testable part of any software. It usually has one or a few inputs and generally a single output. In procedural programming, a unit may be an individual program, procedure, function, etc.

41. What is quality in Software testing?

Quality: It is the point to which a component, system or process meets specified requirements and/or user/customer needs and expectations. 

42. Explain Software Testing and Quality Assurance?

Software Quality Assurance is all about the engineering process that ensures the quality of the software

Software Testing is to test a product for problems/defects/errors before the product goes live. It involves activities that are related to the implementation of processes, procedures, and standards.

Tips to choose the best Software Testing Institute in Chennai
Tips to choose the best Software Testing Institute in Chennai

43. Explain Acceptance Testing in Software Testing?

Acceptance testing is a type of software testing, where a system is tested for acceptability. The aim of this test is to validate the system’s compliance with the business requirements and determine whether it is acceptable for delivery. 

44. What is Stress Testing in software Testing with example?

Stress testing is a type of software testing that verifies the stability & reliability of the system. This type of testing mainly measures the system on its robustness/power and error handling capabilities under extremely heavy load conditions.

For example, we might flood a web application with data, connections, and so on until it finally crashes. The fact of the crash might be unremarkable.

45. What is Test Data?

Test data is the data that is used by the software testers to run the test cases. When running the test cases, the testers need to enter some input data. Therefore to carry out the test cases, the testers prepare these test data. It can be prepared manually or otherwise by using tools.

46. What is Integration testing?

Integration testing is a level of software testing process, where individual units of an application/product are combined/integrated and tested. It is normally performed after unit and functional testing.

47. What is Walkthrough in Software Testing?

Walkthrough in software testing is used to review documents with managers, peers, and fellow team members who are guided by the author of the document to collect feedback and reach a consensus.

A walkthrough can be pre-planned or organized based on the needs.

48. What is mutation testing?

Mutation testing is a technique to find if a set of test data or test cases is useful by intentionally introducing various code changes (bugs) and retesting with original test data/ cases to estimate whether the bugs are detected.

| Also Read: Why to choose Zuan Education to Learn Software Testing course in Chennai!

49. What is Boundary-value analysis in software testing?

Boundary value analysis in software testing is a technique in which tests are created to include representatives of boundary values in a range. The idea comes from the boundary.

50. What are the categories of debugging?

The Categories for debugging are,

  1. Brute force debugging
  2. Backtracking
  3. Cause elimination
  4. Program Slicing
  5. Fault tree analysis

51. What is Test Harness?

A test harness or automated test framework is the collection of software and test data configured to test a program unit by running it under varying conditions which involves monitoring the output with the expected output.

It has two important parts: the test execution engine and the test script repository.

52. What is test coverage?

Test coverage helps in determining the amount of testing done by a set of tests.

Test coverage can be performed on both functional and non-functional activities. It helps testers to create tests that cover areas that are missing.

53. Explain Usability Testing in software testing?

Usability testing, a non-functional testing technique that is used to estimate how easily the system can be used by end-users.

Generally, it is difficult to evaluate and measure but can be validated based on the below parameters: Level of Skill required to learn/use the software.

54. What are the different types of Non-functional testing?

  • Performance Testing
  • Load Testing
  • Failover Testing
  • Compatibility Testing
  • Usability Testing
  • Stress Testing
  • Maintainability Testing
  • Scalability Testing
  • Volume Testing
  • Security Testing
  • Disaster Recovery Testing
  • Compliance Testing
  • Portability Testing
  • Efficiency Testing
  • Reliability Testing
  • Baseline Testing
  • Endurance Testing
  • Documentation Testing
  • Recovery Testing
  • Internationalization Testing
  • Localization Testing

55. What are the best practices for software quality assurance?

The best practices for an effective SQA implementation is

  • Continuous Improvement
  • Documentation
  • Tool Usage
  • Metrics
  • Responsibility by team members
  • Experienced SQA auditors

56. Explain functional Testing?

Functional testing is the process of verifying the software application behaves(functionals) as specified in the requirement document. 

57. Explain Non-Functional Testing?

Non-Functional testing is measuring the various aspects/performance of the system and improving the user experience on how fast the system responds to a request.

Start a career in software Testing
Start a Career in Software testing

58. What are the common mistakes that create issues?

  • Matching resources to wrong projects
  • Test manager lack of skills
  • Not listening to others
  • Poor Scheduling
  • Underestimating
  • Ignoring the small problems
  • Not following the process

59. What is the step you would follow once you find the defect?

Once a defect is found you would follow the below steps:

a) Recreate the defect

b) Attach the screenshot

c) Log the defect

60. What is Bug Severity?

Bug/Defect severity can be defined as the impact of the bug on a customer’s business. It can be Critical, Major or Minor. In simple words, how much effect will be there on the system because of a particular defect.

61. What is Bug Priority?

Defect priority can be defined as how soon the defect should be fixed. It gives the order in which a defect should be resolved. Developers decide which defect they should take up next based on the priority. It can be High, Medium or Low. Most of the times the priority status is set based on the customer requirement. 

62. Tell some examples of Bug Severity and Bug Priority?

High Priority & High Severity: Submit button is not working on a login page and customers are unable to login to the application

Low Priority & High Severity: Crash in some functionality which is going to deliver after a couple of releases

High Priority & Low Severity: Spelling mistake of a company name on the homepage

Low Priority & Low Severity: FAQ page takes a long time to load

63. What is Bug Life Cycle?

Bug life cycle is also known as Defect life cycle. In the Software Development process, the bug has a life cycle. The bug should go through the life cycle to be closed. Bug life cycle varies depending upon the tools (QC, JIRA etc.,) used and the process followed in the organization. 

64. What is Defect Age?

Defect age can be defined as the time interval between date of defect detection and date of defect closure.

Defect Age = Date of defect closure – Date of defect detection

Assume, a tester found a bug and reported it on 1 Jan 2016 and it was successfully fixed on 5 Jan 2016. So the defect age is 5 days.

65. What is Bug Release?

Releasing the software to the Production with the known bugs then we call it as Bug Release. These known bugs should be included in the release note.

Conclusion:

Hence, these are the most important Software Testing interview questions and answers. It will assist you with your just-in-time preparation for that job interview in Software testing. 

If you found this “Software Testing Interview Questions and Answers” article relevant, check out the Software Testing Training by Zuan Education, a trusted Software Testing Training Institute in Chennai with a network of more than 15,000+ satisfied aspirants spread across the globe. 

Zuan Education Software Testing Training
Zuan Education Software Testing Training

In the meanwhile, If we have missed any other important Software Testing interview questions, let me know in the comments.


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